To carry out their activities, Research Teams of the Frédéric Joliot Institute for Life Sciences have developed high-profile technological platforms in many areas : biomedical imaging, structural biology, metabolomics, High-Throughput screening, level 3 microbiological safety laboratory...
All the news of the Institute of life sciences Frédéric Joliot
Scientific result | Brain | MRI | Medical imaging
Being part of an international consortium, the Neurofunctional Imaging Group (NeuroSpin, Bordeaux) and the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguinstics have characterized the asymmetries of surface and thickness of the cerebral cortex of 17,141 individuals from MRI. This study published in PNAS, the largest ever done, provides a unique reference for studying the genetic basis of cerebral asymmetries and the alteration of lateralization during cognitive, neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Hemispheric asymmetry is a cardinal feature of human brain organization. Altered brain asymmetry has also been linked to some cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever analysis of cerebral cortical asymmetry and its variability across individuals. Cortical thickness and surface area were assessed in MRI scans of 17,141 healthy individuals from 99 datasets worldwide. Results revealed widespread asymmetries at both hemispheric and regional levels, with a generally thicker cortex but smaller surface area in the left hemisphere relative to the right. Regionally, asymmetries of cortical thickness and/or surface area were found in the inferior frontal gyrus, transverse temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and entorhinal cortex. These regions are involved in lateralized functions, including language and visuospatial processing. In addition to population-level asymmetries, variability in brain asymmetry was related to sex, age, and intracranial volume. Interestingly, we did not find significant associations between asymmetries and handedness. Finally, with two independent pedigree datasets (n = 1,443 and 1,113, respectively), we found several asymmetries showing significant, replicable heritability. The structural asymmetries identified and their variabilities and heritability provide a reference resource for future studies on the genetic basis of brain asymmetry and altered laterality in cognitive, neurological, and psychiatric disorders.
X-Z Kong, S R Mathias, T Guadalupe, ENIGMA Laterality Working Group, D C Glahn, B Franke, F Crivello, N Tzourio-Mazoyer, S E Fisher, P M Thompson, and C Francks. Mapping cortical brain asymmetry in 17,141 healthy individuals worldwide via the ENIGMA Consortium (2018). PNAS, 115(22):E5154-E5163
CEA is a French government-funded technological research organisation in four main areas: low-carbon energies, defense and security, information technologies and health technologies. A prominent player in the European Research Area, it is involved in setting up collaborative projects with many partners around the world.